Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
"I've never met a human worth cloning," says cloning expert Mark Westhusin from his lab at Texas A&M University. "It's a stupid endeavor." That's an interesting choice of adjective, coming from a man who has spent millions of dollars trying to clone a 13-year-old dog named Missy. So far, he and his team have not succeeded, though they have cloned two cows and expect to clone a cat soon. They just might succeed in cloning Missy this spring - or perhaps not for another 5 years. It seems the reproductive system of man's best friend is one of the mysteries of modern science.
Westhusin's experience with cloning animals leaves him upset by all this talk of human cloning. In three years of work on the Missy project, using hundreds upon hundreds of dog's eggs, the A&M team has produced only a dozen or so embryos (胚胎) carrying Missy's DNA. None have survived the transfer to a surrogate (代孕的) mother. The wastage of eggs and the many spontaneously aborted fetuses (胎) may be acceptable when you're dealing with cats or bulls, he argues, but not with humans. "Cloning is incredibly inefficient, and also dangerous," he says.
Even so, dog cloning is a commercial opportunity, with a nice research payoff. Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997, Westhusin's phone has been ringing with people calling in hopes of duplicating their cats and dogs, cattle and horses. "A lot of people want to clone pets, especially if the price is right," says Westhusin. Cost is no obstacle for Missy's mysterious billionaire owner; he's put up $3.7 million so far to fund A&M's research.
Contrary to some media reports, Missy is not dead. The owner wants a twin to carry on Missy's fine qualities after she does die. The prototype is, by all accounts, athletic, good-natured and supersmart. Missy's master does not expect an exact copy of her. He knows her clone may not have her temperament. In a statement of purpose, Missy's owner and the A&M team say they are "both looking forward to studying the ways that her clones differ from Missy."
Besides cloning a great dog, the project may contribute insight into the old question of nature vs. nurture. It could also lead to the cloning of special rescue dogs and many endangered animals.
However, Westhusin is cautious about his work. He knows that even if he gets a dog pregnant, the offspring, should they survive, will face the problems shown at birth by other cloned animals: abnormalities like immature lungs and heart and weight problems~ "Why would you ever want to clone humans," Westhusin asks, "when we're not even close to getting it worked out in animals yet?"
31. By "stupid endeavor" (Line 2, Para. 1), Westhusin means to say that ________.
A) human cloning is a foolish undertaking
B) animal cloning is absolutely impractical
C) human cloning should be done selectively
D) animal cloning is not worth the effort at all
32. What does the first paragraph tell us about Westhusin's dog cloning project?
A) Its success is already in sight.
B) It is doomed to utter failure.
C) It is progressing smoothly.
D) Its outcome remains uncertain.
33. By cloning Missy, Mark Westhusin hopes to ________.
A) examine the reproductive system of the dog species
B) find out the differences between Missy and its clones
C) search for ways to modify .its temperament
D) study the possibility of cloning humans
34. We learn from the passage that animal clones are likely to have ________.
A) an abnormal shape
B) a bad temper
C) defective organs
D) immune deficiency
35. It can be seen that present cloning techniques ________.
A) provide insight into the question of nature vs. nurture
B) have been widely used in saving endangered species
C) have proved quite adequate for the cloning of humans
D) still have a long way to go before reaching maturity
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
Frustrated with delays in Sacramento, Bay Area officials said Thursday they planned to take matters into their own hands to regulate the region's growing pile of electronic trash.
A San Jose councilwoman and a San Francisco supervisor said they would propose local initiatives aimed at controlling electronic waste if the California law-making body fails to act on two bills stalled in the Assembly~ They are among a growing number of California cities and counties that have expressed the same intention.
Environmentalists and local governments are increasingly concerned about the toxic hazard posed by old electronic devices and the cost of safely recycling those products. An estimated 6 million televisions and computers are stocked in California homes, and an additional 6,000 to 7,000 computers become outdated every day. The machines contain high levels of lead and other hazardous substances, and are already banned from California landfills ( 垃圾填埋场 ).
Legislation by Senator Byron Sher would require consumers to pay a recycling fee of up to $30 on every new machine containing a cathode ( 阴极 ) ray tube. Used in almost all video monitors and televisions, those devices contain four to eight pounds of lead each. The fees would go toward setting up recycling programs, providing grants to non-profit agencies that reuse the tubes and rewarding manufacturers that encourage recycling.
A separate bill by Los Angeles-area Senator Gloria Romero would require high-tech manufacturers to develop programs to recycle so-called e-waste.
If passed, the measures would put California at the forefront of national efforts to manage the refuse of the electronic age.
But high-tech groups, including the Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group and the American Electronics Association, oppose the measures, arguing that fees of up to $30 will drive consumers to online, out-of-state retailers.
"What really needs to occur is consumer education. Most consumers are unaware they're not supposed to throw computers in the trash," said Roxanne Gould, vice president of government relations for the electronics association.
Computer recycling should be a local effort and part of residential waste collection programs, she added.
Recycling electronic waste is a dangerous and specialized matter, and environmentalists maintain the state must support recycling efforts and ensure that the job isn't contracted to unscrupulous ( 毫无顾忌的 ) junk dealers who send the toxic parts overseas.
"The graveyard of the high-tech revolution is ending up in rural China," said Ted Smith, director of the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. His group is pushing for an amendment to Sher's bill that would prevent the export of e-waste.
36. What step were Bay Area officials going to take regarding e-waste disposal.'?
A) Rally support to pass the stalled bills.
B) Lobby the lawmakers of the California Assembly.
C) Lay down relevant local regulations themselves.
D) Exert pressure on manufacturers of electronic devices.
37. The two bills stalled in the California Assembly both concern ________.
A) the reprocessing of the huge amounts of electronic waste in the state
B) regulations on dumping hazardous substances into landfills
C) the funding of local initiatives to reuse electronic trash
D) the sale of used electronic devices to foreign countries
38. Consumers are not supposed to throw used computers in the trash because __.
A) this is banned by the California government
B) some parts may be recycled for use elsewhere
C) unscrupulous dealers will retrieve them for profit
D) they contain large amounts of harmful substances
39. High-tech groups believe that if an extra $30 is charged on every TV or computer purchased in California, consumers will _______.
A) hesitate to upgrade their computers
B) abandon online shopping
C) buy them from other states
D) strongly protest against such a charge
40. We learn from the passage that much of California's electronic waste has been _
A) dumped into local landfills
B) exported to foreign countries
C) collected by non-profit agencies
D) recycled by computer manufacturers
Part III Vocabulary (20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
41. She gave ________ directions about the way the rug should be cleaned.
A) brisk B) opaque
C) explicit D) transient
42. He had an almost irresistible ________ to talk to the crowd when he entered Hyde Park.
43. She expressed her strong determination that nothing could ________ her to give up her career as a teacher.
44. By turning this knob to the right you can ________ the sound from the radio.
45. A ________ official is one who is irresponsible in his work.
46. One witness ________ that he'd seen the suspect run out of the bank after it had been robbed.
A) convicted B) retorted
C) testified D) conformed
47. Many ecologists believe that lots of major species in the world are on the________ of extinction.
48. A number of students ________ in flats, and others live in the nearby holiday resorts, where there is a reasonable supply of competitively priced accommodation.
49. The doctors ________ the newly approved drug into the patient when he was critically ill.
50. My grandfather, a retired worker, often ________ the past with a feeling of longing and respect.
51. This is a long ________ - roughly 13 miles down a beautiful valley to the little church below.
52. The microscope and telescope, with their capacity to enlarge, isolate and probe, demonstrate how details can be ________ and separated from the whole.
53. They couldn't see a ________ of hope that they would be saved by a passing ship.
54. Any salesperson who sells more than the weekly ________ will receive a bonus.
55. ________ efforts are needed in order to finish important but unpleasant tasks.
56. Some scientists are dubious of the claim that organisms ________ with age as an inevitable outcome of living.
57. It took a lot of imagination to come up with such a(n) ________ plan.
58. Many manufacturers were accused of concentrating too heavily on cost reduction, often at the ________ of the quality of their products.
59. He could not ________ ignorance as his excuse; he should have known what was happening in
60. Nothing Helen says is ever ________. She always thinks carefully before she speaks.
61. Medical students are advised that the wearing of a white coat ________ the acceptance of a professional code of conduct expected of the medical profession.
62. He bought his house on the________ plan, paying a certain amount of money each month.
63. She was deeply ________ by the amount of criticism her play received.
64. Most mathematicians trust their ________ in solving problems and readily admit they would not be able to function without it.
A) conception C) cognition
B) perception D) intuition
65. He still ________ the memory of his carefree childhood spent in that small wooden house of his grandparents'.
66. One of the attractive features of the course was the way the practical work had been ________ with the theoretical aspects of the subject.
67. Lighting can be used not only to create an atmosphere, but also to ________ features of the house, such as ornaments or pictures.
a) activate b) highlight
c) upgrade d) underline
61. Apart from philosophical and legal reasons for respecting patients' wishes, there are several practical reasons why doctors should ________ to involve patients in their own medical care decisions.
A) enforce C) endeavor
b) enhance d) endow
69. Encouraged by their culture to voice their opinions freely, the Canadians are not afraid to go against the group ________, and will argue their viewpoints enthusiastically, though rarely aggressively.
70. The traditional markets retain their ________ for the many Chinese who still prefer fresh food like live fish, ducks, chickens over packaged or frozen goods.
A) image B) pledge
C) survival D) appeal
Part IV Error Correction (15 minutes)
Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank, lf you add a word, put an insertion mark in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and put a slash in the blank.
The World Health Organization (WHO) says its ten-year campaign to remove leprosy (麻风病) as a world health problem has been successful. Doctor Brundtland, head of the WHO, says a number of leprosy cases around the world has S1.
been cut of ninety percent during the past ten years. She says S2.
efforts are continuing to complete end the disease. S3.
Leprosy is caused by bacteria spread through liquid from
the nose and mouth. The disease mainly effects the skin and S4.
nerves. However, if leprosy is not treated it can cause permanent
damage for the skin, nerves, eyes, arms or legs. S5.
In 1999, an international campaign began to end leprosy.
The WHO, governments of countries most affected by the
disease, and several other groups are part of the campaign.
This alliance guarantees that all leprosy patients, even they S6.
are poor, have a right to the most modern treatment.
Doctor Brundtland says leprosy is no longer a disease
that requires life-long treatments by medical experts. Instead,
patients can take that is called a multi-drug therapy. This S7.
modern treatment will cure leprosy in 6 to 12 months,
depend on the form of the disease. The treatment combines S8.
several drugs taken daily or once a month. The WHO has
given multi-drug therapy to patients freely for the last five S9.
years. The members of the alliance against leprosy plan to
target the countries which still threatened by leprosy. Among S10
the estimated 600,000 victims around the world, the WHO
believes about 70% are in India. The disease also remains a
problem in Africa and South America.
Part V Writing(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an open letter on behalf of the student union asking people to give help to a student who is seriously ill. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below: