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英语语法 - 主谓一致

作者:英语  更新:2006-2-22
 

    

英语句子中,主语的“人称”和“数”要限制,决定谓语动词的形式变化,这就叫“主谓一致”关系。
它通常依据三项原则:
1)语法一致; 2)意义一致; 3)就近一致。
【语法一致原则】
I .主语的“人称”决定谓语动词的形式。e.g.
①I love / She loves music . 我/ 她爱好音乐。
②Are your mother a worker ? (误)你母亲是工人吗?
Is your mother a worker ?(正)(主语your mother 是单数第三人称)
II .主语的“数”决定谓语动词的形式。
1.“不可数名词、可数名词单数、单数代词、不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)”或“从句”等作主语,用单数谓语形式。e.g.
①The work is important . 这项工作重要。
②To serve the country is our duty . 为祖國服务是我们的义务。
③How and why he left was a sad story . 他离开的经过和原因是一段伤心的经历。
2. 复数的名词、代词一般接复数谓语形式。e.g.
①The children are taken good care of . 孩子们得到很好的照料。
②They have gone to Chengdu . 他们去成都了。
II. 以“and ”或“both… and”连接的并列主语:
1.通常作复数用 。e.g.
①Plastics and rubber never rot . 塑料和橡胶从不腐烂。
②What he says and what he does do not agree. 他言行不一致。
③Both Tom and I are fond of medicine . 我和汤姆都喜欢医学。
2. 如果并列主语指的是“同一个”人(事、物、抽象概念),作单数用。e.g.
①The worker and writer has come . 这位工人作家来了。
②A cart and horse was seen in the distance . 远处能看见有一套马车。
③Truth and honesty is the best policy . 真诚是最好的策略。
3. “and”前、后的单数词语都有“each,every ,many ,a ,no”等修饰时,仍作单数用。e.g.
①Every boy and every girl enjoys equal rights here.这里每个男孩和每个女孩都享有平等权益。
②No teacher and no student is excused from taking part in the activity .没有哪个教师或学生可以免于参加这项活动。
Ⅳ. 主语前、后加表“数、量”等的修饰语时:
1. a)“many a + 单名 ”接单数谓语:“a good (great ) many + 复名”接复数谓语。e.g.
①Many a fine man has died for it . 许多优秀战士为此献出了生命。
②A great many parents were present at the meeting . 许多家长出席了会议。
b)"a / an + 单名+ or two " 大多接单数谓语: "one or two + 复名"接复数谓语。e.g.
①Only a word or two is (are )needed. 只需说一两句。
②One or two reasoms were suggested . 提出一两条理由。
c)"a / an + 单名+ and a half"常接单数谓语;“one and a half +复名”多接复数谓语。e.g.
①A year and a half has passed . 一年半已过去了。
②One and a half tons of rice are sold . 已卖了一吨半大米。
d) "more than one + 单名"大多接单数谓语。e.g.
①More than one person was (were )absent . 不止一个人缺席。
"more + 复名+ than one "接复数谓语。e.g.
②More students than one have been there . 不止一个学生去过那儿。
"more than two (three,…)+复名 " 接复数谓语。e.g.
③More than one hundred students have attended the concert . 不止一百名学生听了这场音乐会。
2 ,主语前加表示“单位、度量”的短语如“a kind (sort / type / form /pair /cup /glass /piece / load / block / box / handful / quantity / ton / metre /… )of”等时,表示“单位、度量”的这个名词的单复数决定谓语形式。e.g.
a)①There is only a small quantity of paper (books ) left . 只剩下少量的纸(书)了。
②Large quantities of water are needed . 需要大量的水。
b)①This kind of apple is sweet . 这種苹果甜。
②This kind of apples is (are) sweet . (大多依 kind ,作单数用 )
③These kind(s) of apple(s) are sweet . (总作复数用)
但:Apples of this kind are sweet . (总作复数用)
3. 主语后接“with…”等构成的短语修饰成分时:谓语仍须与这类短语前的“主语”一致。可构成这类短语的常用“with ,along with ,together with ,as well as , but , besides , except ,added to , including , like ,no less than , rather than , more than ”等。e.g.
①A woman with two children has come . 一位妇女带着两个孩子来了。
②I as well as they am ready to help you . 不仅他们,我也愿帮助你。
4. "one of + 复数名词+ 定语从句":
1)定语从句的先行词通常是这个“复数名词”,因此从句的谓语用复数形式。e.g.
①This is one of the best novels that have appeared this year . 这是今年出版的最佳小说之一。(关系词“that”代“novels”)
②He was one of the boys who were praised . 他是受表扬的男孩之一。
2)若“one”前加“this, the ,the only ”等时,定语从句的关系词指代one,作从句主语时,接单数谓语。e.g.
He was the only one of the boys who was praaised .他是男孩中唯一受到表扬的。(关系词who 代 the only one )
【意义一致原则(Notional Concord)】
I. 集合名词作主语时:(参见“名词”部分)
1. 有些通常作复数用(不变词形)。如:“people , police , cattle (牛,牲口),folk , youth , militia (民兵)”,等。e.g.
The police have caught the murderer .警方已捕获凶手。
2. 有些指“整体”时作单数,指其中的“成员”时作复数(不变词形)。如 "army , audience(听众),class ,club (俱乐部) ,company(公司), committee(委员会) ,crew ,crowd ,staff(员工) ,family ,public ,government ,group ,party ,union ,couple ,population ,team ."等。e.g.
①Our family is a happy one . 我们有个幸福的家庭。
②The family are early risers . 这家人都起得早。
③The public are (is )requested not to litter . 请公众不要乱扔废弃物。
但上述集合名词也可有复数形式。如:families , two classes .等。有些变复数形式后意义不同。如:peoples多个民族。 youths男青年。 folks亲友。
II. 代词作主语时:(参见“代词”部分)
1. 不定代词"each ,one , much, (a)little ,elther ,neither ,another ,the other(+单名)"等常作单数用。它们所修饰的主语也作单数。e.g.
①Each of the girls (Each girl) has a new hat . 每个女孩都有顶新帽子。
②Neither plan suits me .③Neither of the plans suits / suit me . 两个计划都不适合我。
2. 下列复合不定代词一般作单数用:“someone ,somebody ,something ,anybody ,anyone ,anything ,everybody ,everyone ,eveything ,nobody ,no one ,nothig ”等。e.g.
①Is everybody here ? 都到齐了吗?
②There was nothing special then. 那时没什么特别情况。
3. 下列不定代词作复数用:“(a)few ,many ,several, both”等。e.g.
①Few (of the guests ) were familiar to us . 没几个(客人)是我们熟识的。
②Both / Both (of ) these are interesting . 两部影片都有趣。
4下列代词须视其“具体所指”来决定单、复数:
1)“what ,which ,who ,whose ”等。e.g.
①Who is your brother ?你兄弟是谁?
②Who are League Members .哪些是团员?
2)"all , some ,more ,most ,any ,none ,a lot(of ), lots (of ),"等。e.g.
①All (of the students ) are working hard .(所有的学生)都在用功。
②All (of the paint ) is fine .(这些油漆)都很好。
3)"half(of), plenty (of), the rest(of), (a)part(of), the remainder(of )余下的)",等。e.g.
①Half of the apples are bad .苹果中有一半是坏的。
②Half of the apple is bad .这只苹果坏了一半。
Ⅲ.“数词”、“数量、单位”等词语作主语时:
1. 表示“运算”的数词通常作单数 。e.g.
Ten times four makes(make) forty .+ 乘以四得四十。
2.表“时间、距离、金额、度量衡”等的词语,作“整体”看时作单数用,侧重指“若干单位”时作复数用。e.g.
①Twenty years is not a long time . 二十年光阴,弹指一挥间。
②Twenty years have passed since he left . 他离开已二十个年头了。
3.“分数、百分数”通常依其“具体所指”来决定单、复数。e.g.
①About 40 percent / two-fifths of the books here are (is) worth reading . 这些书中百贩N氖/五贩N档枚痢
②Only sixty percent / three-fifths of the work was done yesterday .昨天只干完了百贩N/五贩N墓ぷ鳌
4. "a number of (许多)/ a varlety of (各式各样) "+复数名词,常作复数用。e.g.
①A number of students in this class are (is) from Sichuan . 这个班有不少同学来自四川。
②There are a variety of toys in this shop.这家商店有各種各样的玩具。
但是,“the number(数目)/ the variety(種类)”+ of + 复数名词,作单数。e.g.
①The number of students in this college has doubled . 这所大学的学生人数翻了一番。
②The variety of goods in this shop is rich . 这家商店货物品種丰富。
Ⅳ.单、复数同形或易混的词作主语时:(参见“名词”部分)
1.以“-ics”结尾的学科名词:指教育、科研的某一学科,作单数。e.g.
Mathematics seems easy to me .我似乎觉得数学不难。
但是,表“具体的学业、活动”等时,多用作复数。e.g.
①Her mathematics are weak . 她数学差。(指“学业成绩、能力”)
②What are your politiscs? 你的政治观点如何?
2. “works工厂,means方法,series系列,species物種,aircraft飞机”等名词单、复数同形,要从上下文判断其具体意义来决定单、复数。e.g.
①This works was(These works were)built two years ago . 这(几)家工厂是两年前修建的。
②Every means has (All means have) been tried . 各種办法都试过了。
这类名词通常还有“fish ,deer ,sheep ,headquarters (总部驻地),bellows(风箱), plastics, gallows (绞架), manners(礼貌) ,whereabouts (行踪), ”等。(但news(消息)是不可数名词,通常只作单数用。)
Ⅴ. "the + 形容词/分词"作主语时:
1. 指“一类”人或事物时,常用作复数用。e.g.
①The English speak English. 英國人讲英语。
②The rejected were heaped in the corner . 废品堆在角落里。
2.指“某一个”人,或“抽象的”事物时,作单数用。e.g.
①The deceased was his father . 去世的是他父亲。
②The agreeable is not always the useful . 好看的不一定中用。
③The new and progressive always wins over the old . 新生、进步的事物总是要战胜旧的东西。
Ⅵ.专用名词作主语时:
1.“书名、剧名、报刊名、國家名”等通常作单数用。e.g.
①The United States was founded in 1776. 美國成立于1776年。
②The Arabian Nights is very interesting . 《天方夜谭》很有趣。
2.“书刊名”有时作单数或复数两可,尤其是编成集子的书。e.g.
Dickens' Amerian Notes were (was ) published in 1842 .
狄更斯所著的《美國笔记》出版于1842年。
Ⅶ“what等引导的从句”作主语时:
1. 大多作单数用。e.g.
①What we need is more practice . 我们需要的是更多的实践。
②What he says doesn't agree with what he does . 他言行不一致。
2.若从句是含复数意义的并列结构、或“表语”是复数时,谓语动词用单数或复数两可。e.g.
①What you say and think is /are no business of mine . 你怎么说以及怎么想,不关我的事。
②What he bought was /were some books . 他所买的是几本书。
【就近一致原则(Proximity)】
也称“邻近原则”,即:谓语与靠近的名词、代词(有时不一定是主语)在“人称、数”上一致。
I.在正式文体中:
1.由下列词语连接的并列主语:"or ; either …or;nor; neither…or;whether…or;not…but; not only…but also" ; 等。e.g.
①What he does or what he says does not concern me . 他的行为或言谈都与我无关。
②Neither you nor I am wrong . 你和我都没错。
③Not you but your father is to blame . 不是你,而是你父亲该受责备。
④Not only you hut(also) he is wrong .不仅你错了,他也错了。
2. 在倒装句中:谓语可与后面第一个主语一致。e.g.
①In the distance was heard the clapping of hands and the shouts of the people . 在远处,能听见鼓掌声和人们的呼喊声。
②There is (are) a pen and some books on the desk .桌上有一支钢笔和几本书。
II. 非正式文体中:
有时依“就近一致原则”,但也可依“意义一致原则”或严格地依“语法一致原则”。e.g.
Neither she nor I were there (意义一致) 我和他当时都不在那儿。(非正式)
Neither she nor I was there .(就近一致)(译文同上句)(正式)
但是,如果依“就近一致原则”而与其他两项原则相矛盾时,则常常认为是不太合符规范的。e.g.
No one except his own supporters agree with him .仅他自己的支持者同意他的意见。(依“就近”和“意义”一致的原则;但语法上,“No one ”才是主语,谓语要改成“agrees”。“写作中”一般要依“语法一致”原则。

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