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GRE试题 六

 

    

Time-30 minutes
38 Questions

1. Although sales have continued to increase since last
April, unfortunately the rate of increase has ----.
(A) resurged
(B) capitulated
(C) retaliated
(D) persevered
(E) decelerated

2. Although the mental process that creates a fresh and
original poem or drama is doubtless ---- that which
originates and elaborates scientific discoveries, there
is clearly a discernible difference between the crea-
tors
(A) peripheral to
(B) contiguous with
(C) opposed to
(D) analogous to
(E) inconsistent with

3. It is disappointing to note that the latest edition of
the bibliography belies its long-standing reputation
for ---- by ---- some significant references to
recent publications.
(A) imprecision.. appropriating
(B) relevance.. adding
(C) timeliness.. updating
(D) meticulousness.. revising
(E) exhaustiveness.. omitting

4. Although Simpson was ingenious at ---- to appear
innovative and spontaneous, beneath the ruse he
remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to
problem-solving.
(A) intending
(B) contriving
(C) forbearing
(D) declining
(E) deserving

5. She was criticized by her fellow lawyers not because
she was not ----, but because she so ---- pre-
pared her cases that she failed to bring the expected
number to trial.
(A) well versed.. knowledgeably
(B) well trained.. enthusiastically
(C) congenial.. rapidly
(D) hardworking.. minutely
(E) astute.. efficiently

6. Schlesinger has recently assumed a conciliatory atti-
tude that is not ---- by his colleagues, who con-
tinue to ---- compromise.
(A) eschewed.. dread
(B) shared.. defend
(C) questioned.. reject
(D) understood.. advocate
(E) commended.. disparage

7. The National Archives contain information so ----
that researchers have been known never to publish
because they cannot bear to bring their studies to an
end.
(A) divisive
(B) seductive
(C) selective
(D) repetitive
(E) resourceful

8. HILL: MOUNTAIN::
(A) grass: rocks
(B) autumn: winter
(C) creek: river
(D) star: sun
(E) cliff: slope

9. AERATE: OXYGEN::
(A) eclipse: light
(B) desiccate: moisture
(C) precipitate: additive
(D) hydrate: water
(E) striate: texture

10. ORCHESTRA: MUSICIAN:
(A) cube: side
(B) kilometer: meter
(C) sonnet: poem
(D) biped: foot
(E) pack: wolf
11. EQUIVOCATION: MISLEADING::
(A) mitigation: severe
(B) advice: peremptory
(C) bromide: hackneyed
(D) precept: obedient
(E) explanation: unintelligible

12. CENSORSHIP: COMMUNICATION::
(A) propaganda: ideology
(B) preservative: decay
(C) revision: accuracy
(D) rest: atrophy
(E) exercise: fitness

13. BUS: PASSENGERS:
(A) flock: birds
(B) tanker: liquid
(C) envelope: letter
(D) bin: coal
(E) automobile: gasoline

14. BALLAD: STANZA::
(A) novel: chapter
(B) poem: meter
(C) play: dialogue
(D) movie: script
(E) photograph: caption

15. DISABUSE: FALLACY::
(A) cure: disease
(B) persevere: dereliction
(C) belittle: imperfection
(D) discredit: reputation
(E) discern: discrimination

16. BLANDISHMENT: CAJOLE::
(A) prediction: convince
(B) obstacle: impede
(C) embellishment: praise
(D) deficiency: compensate
(E) compliment: exaggerate

Although the hormone adrenaline is known to regulate
memory storage, it does not pass from the blood into brain
cells. We are faced with an apparent paradox: how can a
hormone that does not act directly on the brain have such a
(5)large effect on brain function?
Recently, we tested the possibility that one of the
hormone’s actions outside the brain might be responsible.
Since one consequence of adrenaline release in an animal
is an increase in blood glucose levels, we examined the
(10)effects of glucose on memory in rats. We found that glu-
cose injected immediately after training enhances memory
tested the next day. Additional evidence was provided by
negative findings: drugs called adrenergic antagonists,
which block peripheral adrenaline receptors, disrupted
(15)adrenaline’s ability to regulate memory but did not affect
memory enhancements produced by glucose that was not
stimulated by adrenaline. These results are as they should
be if adrenaline affects memory modulation by increasing
blood glucose levels.

17.The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) reconcile two opposing theories
(B) compare two different explanations for a phe-
nomenon
(C) describe experimental research that appears to
support an unpopular theory
(D) present evidence that may help to resolve an
apparent contradiction
(E) describe a hypothesis that has cause a con-
troversy

18.It can be inferred from the passage that the author
would most likely describe the "additional evidence"
(line 12) provided by experiments with adrenergic
antagonists as
(A) revolutionary
(B) disappointing
(C) incomplete
(D) unexpected
(E) corroborative

19.The passage provides information about which of the
following topics?
(A) The mechanism by which glucose affects memory
storage
(B) The evidence that prompted scientist to test the
effects of adrenaline on memory regulation
(C) The reason that the effects of glucose on memory
were tested
(D) The ways that memory storage modifies the struc-
ture of the brain
(E) The kinds of training used to test memory enhance-
ment in rats

20.The author refers to the results of the experiment using
adrenergic antagonists as "negative findings" (line 13)
most likely because the adrenergic antagonists
(A) failed to disrupt adrenaline’s effect on memory
(B) did not affect glucose’s ability to enhance memory.
(C) did not block adrenaline’s ability to increase blood
glucose levels
(D) only partially affected adrenaline’s ability to
enhance memory
(E) disrupted both adrenaline’s and glucose’s effect
on memory

The age at which young children begin to make moral
discriminations about harmful actions committed against
themselves or others has been the focus of recent research
into the moral development of children. Until recently,
(5)child psychologists supported pioneer developmentalist Jean.
Piaget in his hypothesis that because of their immaturity,
children under age seven do not take into account the inten-
tions of a person committing accidental or deliberate harm,
but rather simply assign punishment for transgressions on
(10)the basis of the magnitude of the negative consequences
caused. According to Piaget, children under age seven
occupy the first stage of moral development, which is char-
acterized by moral absolutism (rules made by authorities
must be obeyed) and imminent justice (if rules are broken,
(15)punishment will be meted out). Until young children mature,
their moral judgments are based entirely on the effect
rather than the cause of a transgression. However, in recent
research, Keasey found that six- year-old children not only
distinguish between accidental and intentional harm, but
(20)also judge intentional harm as naughtier, regardless of the
amount of damage produced. Both of these findings seem
to indicate that children, at an earlier age than Piaget
claimed, advance into the second stage of moral develop-
ment, moral autonomy, in which they accept social rules
(25)but view them as more arbitrary than do children in the
first stage.
Keasey’s research raises two key questions for develop-
mental psychologists about children under age seven: do
they recognize justifications for harmful actions, and do
(30)they make distinctions between harmful acts that are pre-
ventable and those acts that have unforeseen harmful con-
sequences? Studies indicate that justifications excusing
harmful actions might include public duty,self-defense, and
provocation. For example, Nesdale and Rule concluded that
(35)children were capable of considering whether or not an
aggressor’s action was justified by public duty: five year
olds reacted very differently to "Bonnie wrecks Ann’s
pretend house" depending on whether Bonnie did it "so
somebody won’t fall over it" or because Bonnie wanted "to
(40)make Ann feel bad."Thus, a child of five begins to under-
stand that certain harmful actions, though intentional, can
be justified; the constraints of moral absolutism no longer
solely guide their judgments.
Psychologists have determined that during kindergarten
(45)children learn to make subtle distinctions involving harm.
Darley observed that among acts involving unintentional
harm, six-year-old children just entering kindergarten could
not differentiate between foreseeable, and thus preventable,
harm and unforeseeable harm for which the perpetrator
(50)cannot be blamed. Seven months later, however, Darley
found that these same children could make both distinc-
tions, thus demonstrating that they had become morally
autonomous.

21.Which of the following best describes the passage as
a whole?
(A) An outline for future research
(B) An expanded definition of commonly misunder-
stood terms
(C) An analysis of a dispute between two theorists
(D) A discussion of research findings in an ongoing
inquiry
(E) A confirmation of an established authority’s theory

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